References and Further Reading 1. Biography and History Aristotle's life was primarily that of a scholar.
As a result he devotes more space to the topic of happiness than any thinker prior to the modern era. Living during the same period as Mencius, but on the other side of the world, he draws some similar conclusions.
That is, happiness depends on the cultivation of virtuethough his virtues are somewhat more individualistic than the essentially social virtues of the Confucians.
Yet as we shall see, Aristotle was convinced that a genuinely happy life required the fulfillment of a broad range of conditions, including physical as well as mental well-being. Essentially, Aristotle argues that virtue is achieved by maintaining the Mean, which is the balance between two excesses.
For Aristotle the mean was a method of achieving virtue, but for Buddha the Middle Path referred to a peaceful way of life which negotiated the extremes of harsh asceticism and sensual pleasure seeking.
The Middle Path was a minimal requirement for the meditative life, and not the source of virtue in itself. Aristotle is one of the greatest thinkers in the history of western science and philosophy, making contributions to logic, metaphysics, mathematics, physics, biology, botany, ethics, politics, agriculture, medicine, dance and theatre.
He was a student of Plato who in turn studied under Socrates. Aristotle was the first to classify areas of human knowledge into distinct disciplines such as mathematics, biology, and ethics. Some of these classifications are still used today, such as the species-genus system taught in biology classes.
He was the first to devise a formal system for reasoning, whereby the validity of an argument is determined by its structure rather than its content. Consider the following syllogism: All men are mortal; Socrates is a man; therefore, Socrates is mortal.
Here we can see that as long as the premises are true, the conclusion must also be true, no matter what we substitute for "men or "is mortal. Aristotle was the founder of the Lyceum, the first scientific institute, based in Athens, Greece. According to Aristotle, this view of education is necessary if we are to produce a society of happy as well as productive individuals.
The key question Aristotle seeks to answer in these lectures is "What is the ultimate purpose of human existence? Everywhere we see people seeking pleasure, wealth, and a good reputation. But while each of these has some value, none of them can occupy the place of the chief good for which humanity should aim.
To be an ultimate end, an act must be self-sufficient and final, "that which is always desirable in itself and never for the sake of something else" Nicomachean Ethics, aand it must be attainable by man. Aristotle claims that nearly everyone would agree that happiness is the end which meets all these requirements.
It is easy enough to see that we desire money, pleasure, and honor only because we believe that these goods will make us happy.
It seems that all other goods are a means towards obtaining happiness, while happiness is always an end in itself.
The Greek word that usually gets translated as "happiness" is eudaimonia, and like most translations from ancient languages, this can be misleading. It is not something that can be gained or lost in a few hours, like pleasurable sensations.
It is more like the ultimate value of your life as lived up to this moment, measuring how well you have lived up to your full potential as a human being.
For this reason, one cannot really make any pronouncements about whether one has lived a happy life until it is over, just as we would not say of a football game that it was a "great game" at halftime indeed we know of many such games that turn out to be blowouts or duds.
For the same reason we cannot say that children are happy, any more than we can say that an acorn is a tree, for the potential for a flourishing human life has not yet been realized.
As Aristotle says, "for as it is not one swallow or one fine day that makes a spring, so it is not one day or a short time that makes a man blessed and happy.
If we look at nature, we notice that there are four different kinds of things that exist in the world, each one defined by a different purpose: The only goal which these things seek is to come to a rest. They are "beyond stupid" since they are inanimate objects with no soul Vegetative: Here we see a new kind of thing emerge,something which is alive.Free Essay: One of Aristotle’s conclusions in the first book of Nicomachean Ethics is that “human good turns out to be the soul’s activity that expresses.
Aristotle: Politics. In his Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle ( B.C.E.) describes the happy life intended for man by nature as one lived in accordance with virtue, and, in his Politics, he describes the role that politics and the political community must play in bringing about the virtuous life in the citizenry.
The Politics also provides analysis of the kinds of political community that. In Ethics, Aristotle argues the highest end is the human good, and claims that the highest end pursued in action is happiness.
Aristotle als. Aristotle first used the term ethics to name a field of study developed by his predecessors Socrates and iridis-photo-restoration.comophical ethics is the attempt to offer a rational response to the question of how humans should best live.
Aristotle regarded ethics and politics as two related but separate fields of study, since ethics examines the good of the individual, while politics examines the good of.
Aristotle enshrines happiness as a central purpose of human life and a goal in itself. Virtue, which Aristotle believes that is the balance between two excesses, and definitely achieved by maintaining the mean.
“The pursuit of happiness” is the most famous phrase in the Declaration of Independence. Conventional history and popular wisdom attribute the phrase to the genius of Thomas Jefferson when in.