But by following our easy 8-step method, you will be able to summarize texts quickly and successfully for any class or subject. First off, skim the text you are going to summarize and divide it into sections. Focus on any headings and subheadings.
Background In studying the etymology of the word paragraphwe find that it origin- ated in Greece. The term paragraphos meant a mark in the margin of a manuscript to set off part of a text.
The contemporary use of paragraphs is very closely related to this practice. There are two 2 kinds of paragraphs: As pointed out by Neeldthe "Topic Sentence Paragraph takes one main idea and develops it.
Neeld adds that "thus it is possible to break a Topic Sentence Paragraph down into two parts: In addition, the Topic Sentence Paragraph provides your reader with that all important sense of value.
This comes from the substance of that particular message you are communicating. To do this effectively, it is important that one be aware of certain guiding principles with respect to exactly where the Topic Sentence can or should be placed in a Topic Sentence Paragraph.
The Topic Sentence can go in any one of three 3 places in a paragraph: But please understand the difference between a paragraph with an implied or understood topic sentence and a paragraph that is simply a collection of unconnected, unrelated sentences!
In writing Topic Sentence Paragraphs, you want to always make certain that 1 you tell the reader clearly what the paragraph is about; 2 you make certain that every sentence in the Topic Sentence Paragraph is related to the Topic Sentence, even if it is "implied;" and 3 that you always give your reader enough information to cognate your message.
This final admonition is especially important given that the Topic Sentence Paragraph is the smallest unit of writing in which one can disseminate a complete message.
Methods for Adding Information to Topic Sentence Paragraphs There are several ways by which one can insure that your Topic Sentence Paragraphs are, in fact, giving the reader enough information to understand your message.
Illustrations, Examples, and Details. Your textbooks are excellent references for this type of writing. You may choose virtually any section of a textbook to find where the author, following an overview or Introduction to the subject matter, then follows with illustrations and examples for the readers to follow.
This particular method for adding information is certain to get the reader directly involved as it appeals to the five senses. When one uses description, it is usually to answer questions for the reader such as "What did it sound like?
Develop a Topic Sentence Paragraph that uses description as the primary method of development. Choose one of the following subjects on which to do so: There will be occasion when you wish to define a term or process so as to add information in a Topic Sentence Paragraph.
This can prove to be an especially effective way of giving the reader enough information. The following is a paragraph taken from Effective Writing: Choices and Conventions by Karen Greenberg where she explains what can take place when the student writer fails to understand what the writing process is about.
They become convinced that they cannot write well and may develop negative attitudes toward writing -- fear, anxiety, contempt. These negative attitudes make it even more difficult for them to produce and to shape ideas.
Regardless of whther you think that you write well or poorly, you may have some attitudes about writing that are interfering with your ability to express or to revise these ideas. In order to change these attitudes, first you need to understand them. This chapter is designed to help you examine your feelings and beliefs about writing and explore your writing habits.
Crucial with writing of any type is the effort to convince or persuade your reader with respect to your main idea. This is one good reason for you to use facts and figuresstatistical data where necessary and appropriate.
What statistics and factual data do is lend credibility to your assertion smany times the type of weight that will bring the reader around to agreeing with you.
Here is an example of that type of writing taken from Dr. Given the structural issues presented, and the already known precarious state of the adults, one might wonder specifically how a people of equal innate childhood potential arrive a such a disadvantaged youth status.
One factor to keep in mind is that the reader does not have a long memory for the message you are attempting to get across. With this in mind, what you must do is employ one of the clarifying devices used to achieve coherence -- repetition of key terms -- at consistent intervals.
That is to say, the writer in a conscious act deliberately repeats the key points or themes of the work. This is very different from redundancywherein one simply repeats oneself for lack of anything better to offer a direct outgrowth of not doing the necessary background preparation so as to deliver a well-developed message!
In addition, repetion of those key themes enables one to avoid the error of excessive pronoun usage which brings on the quality of incoherence. One of the very best ways to help your reading audience to "see" what you mean is to compare it to something else.
In doing this, you are showing how the two things are similar.Sep 05, · A topic sentence is a sentence, sometimes at the beginning of a paragraph, that states or suggests the main idea (or topic) of a paragraph..
Not all paragraphs begin with topic sentences. In some, the topic sentence appears in the middle or at the end. In .
The author of Writing/2nd Edition, Dr. Neeld adds that "thus it is possible to break a Topic Sentence Paragraph down into two parts: the topic sentence itself (the main idea, either stated or implied) and the additional sentences (directly related to the topic sentence and developing it).". Sep 03, · Use the topic sentence as a transition. Topic sentences that also work as transitions can help guide your readers through your argument, which can keep them from getting lost. Think of this sentence as a “bridge” between the main idea of the previous paragraph and the main idea of this next paragraph%(). A sentence outline does all of this, plus it shows exactly what you will say about each mini-topic. Each sentence, instead of simply identifying a mini-topic, is like a mini-thesis statement about that mini-topic.
In the first sentence, introduce your second key point. Because this is your second body paragraph (and second point), make sure you employ appropriate transitions, such as “second,” “secondly,” and “next.”. Essay Writing for Standardized Tests: Tips for Writing a Five Paragraph Essay Most, if not all, high school and college standardized tests include a writing portion.
Students are provided a writing prompt and must then write an essay on the topic. Writing a good summary demonstrates that you clearly understand a text and that you can communicate that understanding to your readers.
A summary can be tricky to write at first because it’s. Less often, the topic sentence comes as the second sentence, and sometimes it can come in the middle of the paragraph with other sentences leading up to it.
Read the following. (1) The chemical components, of acid rain . Describe your main idea, or what the essay is about, in one sentence. You can usually use the essay writing prompt or question to form this sentence. Develop a thesis statement, or what you want to say about the main idea.
When the writing prompt is a question, your thesis is typically the answer to the question.